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Glossary

Abbreviation / Definition

Description


3rd Energy Package

European regulatory framework for competition in gas and electricity markets. The package includes directive 2009/73/EC for the regulation of gas markets and directive 2009/72/EC for the regulation of electricity markets and other related legislative documents and regulations.


AG

abbreviated from Aktiengesellschaft (German), a company incorporated under the laws of Switzerland and limited by shares


AEEG

 Autorità per l'energia elettrica e il gas. European regulatory framework for competition in gas and electricity markets. The package includes directive 2009/73/EC for the regulation of gas markets and directive 2009/72/EC for the regulation of electricity markets and other related legislative documents and regulations.


AGI

Above Ground Installation, such as a Block Valve or Compressor Station.


AGT

 Azerbaijan Georgia Turkey Pipelines project. BTC and SCP combined


AL

Albania


ALARP

 As Low As Reasonably Practicable. Term often used in the milieu of safety-critical and safety-involved systems. The ALARP principle is that the residual risk shall be as low as reasonably practicable.


ANSI

 American National Standard Institute. Private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide.


Backfilling the trench

Once the pipeline is in place in the trench, the trench is carefully backfilled so as not to damage the pipe coating.


Barg

 Bar Gauge. A unit of pressure. 0 barg is equivalent to 1 atmosphere pressure.


Bathymetry

Measurement of the depth of the seabed.


BCM

Billion Cubic Meters


BCMa / BCMy

Billion Cubic Meters per year


BEH

Bulgarian Energy Holding EAD


Biological Diversity (biodiversity)

Variability among living organisms from all sources including, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part (Convention on Biological Diversity 1992).


Botas

Boru Hatlari ile Petrol Tasima A.S. Turkish state-owned oil and gas transport company.


BRT

Brindisi Reduction Terminal


BS

British Standard


BSI

British Standard Institute. Multinational business services provider whose principal activity is the production of standards and the supply of standards-related services.


BTC

Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Oil Pipeline


BV

Block Valve. Valve for isolating the pipeline into distinct sections.


BVS

Block Valve Station. These are the first line of protection for pipelines. With these valves the operator can isolate any segment of the line for maintenance work or isolate a rupture or leak. Block valve stations are usually located every 20 to 30 miles (48 km), depending on the type of pipeline.


Capacity Reservation Agreement (CRA)

An agreement between the company and a shipper, including, but not limited to, shareholders, entitling the shipper to transport gas through the TAP pipeline.


CAPEX

Capital Expenditure. Expenditures creating future benefits. A capital expenditure is incurred when a business spends money either to buy fixed assets or to add to the value of an existing fixed asset with a useful life that extends beyond the taxable year.


CEE

Central Eastern Europe


CHM (Cultural Heritage Management)

Is the vocation and practice of managing cultural heritage. It is a branch of cultural resources management (CRM), although it also draws on the practices of conservation, restoration, museology, archaeology, history and architecture).


CO2

Carbon Dioxide


CoC

Code of Conduct


Commercial Operation Date

The date the TAP pipeline is completed and able to receive, transport and re-deliver natural gas.


Consultation Zone

The consultation zone is an area within a certain distance from the pipeline where future development of the area will have impact on the risk picture. The consultation zone can be one or several zones of various distances from the centreline of the pipeline where the pipeline company shall be consulted before the areas are developed or new building applications are processed.


CPC

Caspian Pipeline Consortium


CRTRA

Council for Regulation of Territory of the Republic of Albania


CS

Compressor Station. Facility which helps the transportation process of natural gas from one location to another. Natural gas, while being transported through a gas pipeline, needs to be constantly pressurized in certain distance intervals (from 40 up to 100 miles). The gas in compressor stations is normally pressurized by special turbines, motors and engines.


CSR

Corporate Social Responsibility. A form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. Ideally, CSR policy would function as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby business would monitor and ensure its adherence to law, ethical standards, and international norms.


Cushion Gas

Non-working volume of gas in a cavern.


DP

Design Pressure


DEPA

Greek national gas company – commercial unit


DESFA

Greek national gas company – infrastructure unit


DG ENER

Directorate General of the European Commission for Energy


DG TREN

Directorate General of the European Commission for Transport and Energy Network


D&P

Drilling & Production


EC

European Commission of the European Union.


EGL

EGL AG, Elektrizitätsgesellschaft Laufenburg, now Axpo Trading AG, was an energy trading company based in Switzerland, which initiated the Trans Adriatic Pipeline project. In 2012 Swiss Axpo increased its shares in EGL from 91 to 100 percent, took the company off the exchange, and merged its own trading business with that of EGL. Trading competencies are now consolidated in the business area Axpo Trading & Sales. 


EBE

Extended Basic Engineering


EBRD

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development


E&P

Exploration & Production


Easement

A right-of-way agreement between the pipeline company and the property owner giving a pipeline company a right to use a right-of-way for the construction, operation, and maintenance of a pipeline. It may also include temporary permits, licences, and other agreements allowing the use of one’s property. The easement holder typically has the right to access and inspect the property contained within the easement and to place certain restrictions on how the property can be changed, maintained or used, while all other rights remain with the landowner.


ENGOP

Excess Natural Gas Offtake Payments


ENTSOG

European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas works to promote the completion and functioning of the internal market and cross-border trade for gas and to ensure the optimal management, coordinated operation and sound technical evolution of the European natural gas transmission network.


EPC

Engineering, Procurement and Construction


ERE

Energy Regulator Entity, Albania


ERGEG

European Regulators Group for Electricity and Gas


ESIA

Environmental Social Impact Assessment. Assessment of the possible impact - positive or negative - that a proposed project may have on the environment, together consisting of the natural, social and economic aspects.


EU

European Union


ETG

E.ON Technologies GmbH, headquartered in Germany (former ENT) is TAP’s technical services provider for the onshore pipeline.


F&G

Fire & Gas


FEED

Front End Engineering Design


Flare

A process system for ignited gas, either waste gas or vented for emergency or maintenance relief


FYROM

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia


Gas Directive

Means the EU directive 2003/55/EC of 26 June 2003


Gas Transmission System Regulation

The Regulation on the conditions for access to the natural gas transmission networks No. 1775/2005 of the European Parliament and the Council of 28 September 2005.


GBI

Greece-Bulgarian Interconnector


GDP

Gross Domestic Product. Market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period.


GPA

Gas Purchase Agreement


Greek INGS

An Independent Natural Gas System under the Greek Gas Law.


Greek NNGS

A National Natural Gas System under the Greek Gas Law.


GT (Gas Turbine)

Also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a flow of combustion gas. It has an upstream compressor coupled to a downstream turbine, and a combustion chamber in between. Gas turbine may also refer to just the turbine element.


GTA

Gas Transportation Agreement. Arrangement that allows one company to have marketing control of electricity produced by generating assets owned by another company.


HGA

Host Government Agreement


Host Country (of TAP)

Albania, Greece and Italy


HBP

High Pressure Branch Line


HSE

Health, Safety, and Environment


HSSE

Health, Safety, Security and Environment


IAP

Ionian-Adriatic Pipeline, the IAP project intends to connect the existing and the planned gas transmission systems of the Republic of Croatia, via Montenegro, and Albania with the Trans Adriatic Pipeline.


IBRD

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development


IDA

International Development Association


IDD

Integrity Due Diligence. Means the effort made by a party to identify and deal with potential ethical risks or areas of ethical uncertainty in order to avoid harm to another party or himself.


IEC

International Electrical Commission


IDD

 Integrity Due Diligence. Means the effort made by a party to identify and deal with potential ethical risks or areas of ethical uncertainty in order to avoid harm to another party or himself.


IEC

International Electrical Commission


IGA

Intergovernmental Agreement


IGB

Interconnector Greece-Bulgaria


IGE

Institute of Gas Engineers


IGI Poseidon

Pipeline project of DEPA / Edison (Interconnector Greece-Italy)


ISO

International Standard Organisation. An international-standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organisations.


IT

Italy


Italian RNG (Rete Nazionale di Gasdotti)

The Italian national natural gas transport system as defined in the Italian MICA Decree of 22 of December 2000.


ITG

Interconnector Turkey-Greece


ITGI

Interconnector Turkey-Greece-Italy


LAS

Land Acquisition Services


LEA

Land Easement and Acquisition


LCS

Local Content Strategy


LNG

Liquefied Natural Gas


MATT

The Italian Ministry of the Environment and the Territorial Protection (Ministero per l’ambiente e per la tutela del territorio)


MEECC

Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change Greece


METE

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Energy Albania


MLA

Multilateral agency


MoEFWA

Ministry of Environment, Forests and Water Administration Albania


MoU

Memorandum of Understanding


MOUC

Memorandum of Understanding and Cooperation


MSE (Ministero dello sviluppo economic)

The Italian Ministry of Economic Development, formerly the Ministry of Productive Activities (Ministero delle attività produttive) aka MAP


Natura 2000

Ecological network of protected areas in the territory of the European Union.


NCS

Norwegian Continental Shelf. Continental shelf over which Norway exercises sovereign rights as defined by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. It is rich in petroleum and gas and it is the base of the so-called


NGO

Non-governmental organization


NGTS

Natural Gas Transmission System


NPV

Net Present Value, an economic standard method for evaluating competing long-term projects in capital budgeting.


O & M

Operations and maintenance


OGP

International Association of Oil & Gas Producers


On-bottom Installation

Installing the pipeline directly onto the seabed without any subsequent pipeline burial.


Open Season

A procedure used to improve access to transport capacity in pipeline projects. It is generally used for new pipeline, LNG or gas storage projects in situations when regulation requires these projects to offer transportation services to the market and third parties not involved in the project and to do so in a transparent way. It can also be used as a mean of gathering information about potential interest in the project and provide an indication to project’s sponsors on how and when to expand the project.


OPEX (Operating Expenditure)

The ongoing cost of running a product, business, or system.


PCV

Pressure Control Valve


PEIA

Preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment


Permanent Right-of-Way

Usually a narrower strip to enable access for inspection, maintenance, repair and protection of the pipeline. The pipeline company shall have the right to access the strip at any time.


PFD

Process Flow Diagram


PGA (Peak Ground Acceleration)

Measure of earthquake acceleration on the ground and an important input parameter for earthquake engineering.


PIG (Pipeline Intelligent Gauge)

A generic term to describe a device that travels inside the pipeline. “Pigs” can be used for a number of purposes including cleaning, gauging and measuring the condition within the pipeline.


Pigging

The process of cleaning or measuring internally the pipeline whereby a “pig” is sent though the line to clean/ measure the inside of the pipeline.


Pipe Yard

The area used for the temporary storage of pipe prior to spread.


Posidonia grass

Posidonia oceanica (marine phanerogam, commonly known as Neptune Grass) is a sea grass species that is endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. It forms large underwater meadows that are an important part of the ecosystem. The fruit is free-floating and known in Italy as 'the olive of the sea'.


PRMS

Pressure Reduction & Metering Station


QA

Quality Assurance


QC

Quality Control


QRM

Quality and Risk Management. Identification, assessment, and prioritisation of risks followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimise, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events.


RAE

Regulatory Authority of Energy, Greece


Re-instatement

The process of restoring the area to its prior state after pipeline.


RNG

Rete Nazionale Gas Italia


ROV

Remotely Operated Vehicle


ROW (Right-of-Way)

A narrow, un-obstructed strip or corridor of land of a specific width directly above the pipeline and around the supporting facilities, where some of the property owner's legal rights have been granted to a pipeline company. A right-of-way agreement between the pipeline company and the property owner is also called an easement. Rights-of-ways and easements provide a permanent, limited interest in the land that enables the pipeline company to operate, test, inspect, repair, maintain, replace, and protect one or more pipelines on property owned by others.


SCADA

System, Control and Data Acquisition. Industrial control system: a computer system monitoring and controlling a process. The process can be industrial, infrastructure or facility-based.


SCP

South Caucasus Pipeline (previously termed Shah Deniz Gas Pipeline).


SDC

 Shah Deniz Consortium


SDII (Shah Deniz II)

Second stage of the Shah Deniz natural gas field development in Azerbaijan.


SEE

South Eastern Europe


Single Authorization

Authorization for the construction and operation of natural gas pipelines belonging to the Italian RNG, pursuant to article 52-quinquies of Italian Presidential Decree No. 327 of 8 June 2001, as subsequently amended by the Italian Legislative Decree No. 330 of 27 December 2004.


SOC

State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic SOCAR


Southern Gas Corridor

The Southern Gas Corridor is a term used by the European Commission to describe planned infrastructure projects bringing gas from the Caspian and Middle Eastern sources to Europe, aimed at improving security of supply. These new gas pipelines will create a new and alternative gas supply corridor to Europe in addition to similar ones originating in Russia, Africa and the North Sea


SRG

Snam Rete Gas S.p.A. The Italian natural gas transportation operator.


TCA

Tripartite Coordination Agreement


TEC

The Treaty establishing the Energy Community between the EU and certain South East European States (became effective on 1st July, 2006).


Temporary Right-of-Way

A strip normally 30 metres wide to enable the construction of the pipeline. Additional space is usually required at road or river crossings or when required by terrain or soil.


TEN-E

Trans-European Energy Network – EU programme


TPA Exemption

Temporary derogation from EU rules on Third Party Access to gas infrastructure.


Trans Adriatic Pipeline AG

The company responsible for the planning, development, financing, construction and operation of the TAP pipeline project.


Trenching

The process of excavating the trench for the pipeline.


TSO

Transmission System Operator


TSP

Technical Service Provider


UGS

Underground Gas Storage


WBR

Western Balkan Ring